Sizing ingredients and their characteristics, the sizing operation, and the yarn parameters play a deciding role in determining the performance of warp yarns during weaving. Hence sizing is the heart of weaving. The weaving industry today is shifting away from simply higher production speeds toward optimization of the weaving process, dependability, and fabric quality. This shift has put more pressure on the sizing area to provide materials that not only give strong loom performance but also better fabric quality.
Properties Good Sizing Materials
1. Film forming
Sizing material must form a smooth and uniform coating on the yarn surface, which will not only embed the protruding fibres on the yarn surface, but also protect the yarn from repeated surface abrasions during weaving. The size film should have strong adhesion to yarn surface to prevent dropping of size particle on loom during splitting and weaving.
Sizing material should have good adhesion power to keep the yarn structure intact by preventing inter fiber slippage and properly binding the surface film of sizing chemicals with yarn surface and keeping same intact during weaving
3. Controllable viscosity
The viscosity profile of sizing material should be definitive especially during cooking and post cooking in sow box. Abrupt rise or drop of viscosity during sizing process may lead to very poor yarn sizing as it will affect the add-on (size deposition) on the yarn surface.
4. Optimum penetration
The penetration of sizing chemical in the yarn should be optimum which is decided by the viscosity of sizing solution in the sow box. If the sizing solution penetrates too deep inside the yarn, then it will be difficult to remove same during de-sizing. If the solution remains only on the surface, then the surface film will not have proper binding with yarn.
Optimum penetration will ensure that the sizing solution does not penetrate too deep inside the yarn or only remains on the yarn surface. A properly sized warp will completely encapsulate (360°) the yarn surface to bind the fibres.
5. Film flexibility and elasticity
As stated earlier, the yarn is subjected to complicated stresses during weaving. Hence the surface film should not be too rigid which can lead to its cracking and dropping during weaving. The surface film should act as a pseudo yarn surface should withstand the cyclic-extension and axial abrasion during weaving.
The surface should have optimum lubricity to ensure that yarn easily glides through the mechanical parts on the loom with much abrasion. This ensures that the sizing film remains intact. Various types of waxes and synthetic oils are used widely for this purpose.
7. Bacterial resistance
Generally, sized beam is not immediately sent to loomshed for weaving. It is stored and sent as per planning provided by weaving department. The temperature in the loomshed and in sizing area is normally warm and highly humid, which is conducive for bacterial growth. Bacteria can lead to degradation and staining of textile material. Hence sizing chemicals should have bacterial resistance.
8. Easy removal
The desizing process involves use of chemicals/ enzymes depending upon the type of yarn and sizing chemicals used. Hence sizing chemicals which can be easily removed by use of less or no desizing chemicals are more preferred as they help in saving cost.
Sizing chemicals are supposed to be removed before fabric/garment is sold to consumer. It is an intermediate process, and hence, should be economical to achieve good damage free fabric on loom.
Textile industry is one of the most polluting industries. The chemicals used in textile processing should have minimum effect on the natural environment in which it is discharged. Hence the sizing chemicals should be easily bio-degradable and should use less water during desizing.
Zydex has a range of environmentally friendly textile sizing solutions ranging from sizing cooking additives to post sizing products that enhance the yarn weave ability and provide best on loom yarn performance.
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